This video lecture from Aldehydes and Ketones (F.Sc. second year Chemistry) covers the mechanism of base catalyzed Nucleophilic addition reactions of carbonyl compounds. A base attacks a strong Nucleophilic reagent abstracting the proton and hence generating the nucleophile, which then attacks the electrophilic carbon atom of the carbonyl group. The pi bond pair shifts to the oxygen atom making it negatively charged which, then abstracts a proton from the base product in the first step (or water). Find more e-learning material and educational video lectures in Urdu at maktab.pk. These videos are free to use for promotional and commercial purpose by keeping the credits to Maktab.